The Battle of the Atlantic was a conflict of staggering numbers: hundreds of millions of dollars, pounds, and marks; hundreds of millions of tons of cargo materiel; millions of tons of merchant and warship shipping; millions of men and women in the wartime factories and farms; hundreds of thousands of military service men; tens of thousands of military service women; hundreds of Royal Canadian Navy warships; thousands of Canadian casualties. Measurement, statistical analysis; Ratios; probability, and geometry were the hidden weapons of the battle.

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