# Assignment: Casualties of War

## Teacher's Information

### Curriculum Connections

Category: Statistics, One and Two-Variable Analysis

### Overall Expectations

STV.02 - Analyze data involving one variable using a variety of techniques.

### Specific Expectations

ST2.01 – compute, using technology, measures of one-variable statistics (i.e., the mean, median, mode, range, interquartile range, variance, and standard deviation), and demonstrate an understanding of the appropriate use of each measure;

ST2.02 – interpret one-variable statistics to describe characteristics of a data set;

### Necessary Pre-Assessment

1. Students should understand how to calculate manually the mean, median, mode, range, interquartile range, variance, and standard deviation before attempting to calculate using computer software.

### Time Length

One to two periods, depending on computer access and student ability.

### Materials Needed

- Handouts for each student.
- Excel spreadsheet file with raw data on number and type of ships sunk during Battle of Atlantic.
- Access to computer lab, and software such as Fathom or MS Excel.
- Students will need access to the Internet to send finished work to teacher.

### Teacher Instructions

- Hand out student assignment sheets.
- Students may wish to work in partners, if space is limited and at the teacher's discretion.
- Students will use the raw data in Excel spreadsheet called
**Atlantic Data.xls**to create different types of graphs (histograms, circle graphs, etc.) using Excel (and Fathom – if time). - Students will also calculate measures of central tendency and spread using raw data given in the Excel spreadsheet.
- Teacher would benefit from having presentation resources to help demonstrate how to use Excel.
- Once finished, each student or group will email the teacher their finished results and graphs.
- Graphs can then be used to analyze different patterns and positions of boats sunk during the war.

## The Battle of the Atlantic - Casualties of War

- Open Microsoft Excel file named
**Battle of Atlantic Data.xls**. - Organize the raw data presented and create bar graphs
of the following variables:
- British, allied and neutral ships sunk vs. month
- German U-Boats sunk vs. month
- Total Gross Tonnage sunk vs. month

- From the data on 'Loss Summary by Cause',
create the following circle graphs:
- Total number of ships sunk, by cause
- Total gross tonnage of ships sunk, by cause

- Using a graph of your choice, illustrate and compare the location of the most number of ships sunk in 1940 vs. 1941.
- Find the mean, median and mode for the total gross registered tonnage sunk. Which measure of central tendency best represents the average gross tonnage?
- Find the range, standard deviation and
interquartile range for the total gross registered
tonnage sunk.
- What percentage of the data falls within one standard deviation of the mean?
- Are there any outliers in this data? If so, how do they affect the standard deviation?

- Compare and analyze the two graphs 'British, allies and neutral ships sunk'; and 'German U-Boats sunk'. Think about causes for the trends shown in the graphs.
- When did the United States join the second world war? Does this fact affect any of the trends shown in the graphs studied? Explain.